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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

BELGIUM.
589
and large quantities are used for puddling and foundry purposes. In making iron for the basic Bessemer it is a common practice to use a certain proportion 'of manganiferous ores and slags, so that the iron will contain from 1.5 to 2 per cent, of manganese.
The pig-iron used in Belgium is of domestic manufacture, about one-sixth of the total output being made in the province of Luxemburg, the remainder being equally divided between Liege and Hai-naut. The total production of the country at its maximum is one million tons per year or about what would be made by ten furnaces making three hundred tons per clay. Three-quarters of all the pig-iron is smelted at eight plants, a list of which is given in Table XXVIII-B.
TABLE XXVIII-B.
Important Blast Furnace Plants in Belgium.
Province.	Name of Works.	Location.	Number of Blast Furnaces.	Capacity per Furnace per Day.
t	la Providence ..............	Marchienne ...........	3	
			4	
	tie Monceau Sur Samtore. . .	Near Charleroi . .......	2	90
r	Soc. John Cockerill .....	Seraing ...............	g	
•ri^ee             J	L'Esperance Loiigdoz .....	Seraing ..............	2	
	Angleur .................	Tilleur.... ............. Ougr6e .................	4 4	
•Luxemburg —	d'Athus ...................	Athus ..................	2	70
The steel is made in the two provinces of Liege and Hainaut. The production in 1899 was 718,000 tons or 60,000 tons per month, but in 1900 this fell to 655,000, while in 1901 it was 500,000 tons, owing to the depression in business throughout Europe. Out of 47 converters only 25 are in operation and only 12 open-hearth furnaces are working in the whole country. Over 60 per cent, of the steel was made at Liege, and the works of John Cockerill made most of the rails that were rolled, amounting in 1900 to 134,000 tons, or 11,000 tons per month.
The advantages possessed by, Belgium are the short distances through which material must be carried-.' A circle of a hundred miles radius takes in the coal and ore mines and a seaport, while; the average haul is much less. The wages of labor are low, and although it is a common saying that a man works just in proportion to the way he is paid, this saying is not always exact. A man.